January 10, 2003: North Korea announces its withdrawal from the NPT. North Korea had initially announced its withdrawal from the NPT a decade earlier on suspicion of violation of the NPT. After discussions with the United States, North Korea suspended the withdrawal in June 1993, the day before it came into force. It also agreed to abandon its nuclear weapons program as part of a 1994 agreement with the United States. After the failure of the agreement in 2002, North Korea declared on 10 January 2003 that its withdrawal would come into force one day later, as there would be only one day left of the requirement for a three-month prior notification of withdrawal from the NPT. While the legality of North Korea`s withdrawal process continues to be questioned, subsequent requests from the United Nations and IAEA for Pyongyang to return to the NPT show that it is currently outside the treaty. Article X of the NPT recognizes the right of states to withdraw from the treaty when the “highest interests” of that party are jeopardized by “exceptional events.” States are required to terminate three months in advance before such a revocation takes effect. In light of North Korea`s withdrawal and subsequent development of nuclear weapons, the 2005 NPT Review Conference examined ways to ensure that states withdrawing from the treaty are unable to use the technologies and materials obtained during a NPT state party to pursue nuclear weapons. In December 1953, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, in his “Atoms for Peace” surtax, presented at the eighth session of the United Nations General Assembly, called for the creation of an international organization for the dissemination of peaceful nuclear technologies, refraining from developing weapons capabilities in other countries. His proposal led to the creation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1957, which was responsible for the dual responsibility of promoting and controlling nuclear technology. The technical activities of the IAEA began in 1958.
In 1964, an intermediate control system for small nuclear reactors was replaced in 1964 by a system that covered larger facilities and was extended to additional nuclear facilities in subsequent years. In recent years, efforts to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the IAEA protection system culminated in the approval by the IAEA Board of Governors in May 1997 of the additional protocol model. Five states are recognized by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NWS): China (signed in 1992), France (1992), the Soviet Union (1968); The commitments and rights that are now assumed by the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom (1968) and the United States (1968), which are also, by chance, the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.